What is the treatment for extravasation?

Treatment of a vesicant extravasation includes immediate cessation of infusion, aspiration of as much extravasated drug as possible through the still-intact catheter, and attempts for the aspiration of the extravasated agent in the surrounding tissue. This aspiration may help to limit the extent of tissue damage.

Is etoposide a vesicant?

Although etoposide and teniposideare usually classified as irritants, they may have low vesicant potential if a highly concentrated infused drug is extravasated[9]. Flare reaction, vessel irritation and venous shock, are other events that should be differentiated extravasation.

What is the first treatment for extravasation?

At the first sign of extravasation, the following steps are recommended: (1) stop administration of IV fluids immediately, (2) disconnect the IV tube from the cannula, (3) aspirate any residual drug from the cannula, (4) administer a drug-specific antidote, and (5) notify the physician (Fig. 1).

What is the best method of extravasation prevention?

Apply either ice packs or warm compresses to the affected area, depending on the type of vesicant. For most extravasations, you’ll apply ice for 20 minutes four to six times a day for 24 to 48 hours. However, treat extravasations from Vinca alkaloids, epipodophyllotoxins, and vasoconstricting drugs with heat.

What happens during extravasation?

Extravasation occurs when a vesicant drug leaks out of the vein and into the surrounding tissue. When this happens, a person will likely experience serious tissue damage, including ulceration and tissue death, if they do not receive treatment in time.

What are signs of extravasation with chemotherapy?

Signs and symptoms of vesicant extravasation include swelling, redness, and/or discomfort that are often described as burning or stinging.

What increases risk of extravasation?

Risk factors for extravasation from peripheral veins include the presence of small and/or fragile veins, obesity, multiple previous venipunctures, presence of disseminated skin diseases (e.g. eczema or psoriasis), patient movement, and prior treatment.

What is in an extravasation kit?

4 x 25 or 27 gauge needles. 4 x 5 mL sterile water for injection. 2 x 20 mL dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 99% solution. glass dropper or cotton buds/swab sticks for DMSO 99% solution application.

What are the signs of extravasation?

What are signs of an infiltration/extravasation?

  • Redness around the site.
  • Swelling, puffy or hard skin around the site.
  • Blanching (lighter skin around the IV site)
  • Pain or tenderness around the site.
  • IV not working.
  • Cool skin temperature around the IV site or of the scalp, hand, arm, leg or foot near the site.

When do you have extravasation with etoposide?

Extravasation is found among people who take Etoposide, especially for people who are male, 60+ old , have been taking the drug for < 1 month, also take medication Zevalin, and have Mantle cell lymphoma stage iv.

Is there a Phase IV trial for etoposide?

The phase IV clinical study is created by eHealthMe based on reports of 48,143 people who have side effects when taking Etoposide from the FDA, and is updated regularly. Running one of the largest drug safety studies in the world, eHealthMe is able to enable everyone to run personal clinical trial.

When to apply warm compresses after extravasation?

Warm compresses are preferred for extravasation of specific drugs including vinca alkaloids, etoposide, vasopressors, and oxaliplatin to increase local blood flow and enhance drug removal. Apply compresses for 20 to 60 minutes 3 or 4 times daily for the first 24 to 72 hours after extravasation occurs.

What are the treatment modalities for vesicant extravasation?

Treatment modalities utilized for the management of vesicant extravasation include immediate discontinuation of chemotherapy and cooling or dilution of the site of extravasation.