What is rainfall-runoff process?

The rainfall-runoff process is a complex non-linear outcome of various hydrologic parameters, i.e., precipitation intensity, evaporation, geomorphology of catchment, infiltration of water into the soil and depression storage as well as interactions between groundwater and surface water flows and cannot be modeled by …

What is a runoff process?

Runoff occurs when there is more water than land can absorb. The excess liquid flows across the surface of the land and into nearby creeks, streams, or ponds. Runoff can come from both natural processes and human activity. Runoff also occurs naturally as soil is eroded and carried to various bodies of water.

What is runoff explain the runoff process?

Runoff is often defined as the portion of rainfall, snowmelt, and/or irrigation water that runs over the soil surface toward the stream rather than infiltrating into the soil. It is sometimes called surface runoff.

What are the two main components of runoff?

Direct runoff is made up of overland flow or surface runoff and that part of infiltration which flows laterally through the unsaturated zone of soil mass and joins the stream flow promptly.

How do you calculate rain runoff?

Simple, straightforward methods of calculating runoff can tell you the amount of water that storms bring to the earth. For a given surface area such as a roof or yard, multiply the area by the inches of rainfall and divide by 231 to obtain the runoff in gallons.

What is runoff depth?

The volume of water that flows through a certain channel cross-section per unit of time is referred to as discharge. The mean runoff depth at the measuring point in the receiving water results in the arithmetical mean of the values of the total runoff depth of all area units in the related catchment area.

What are examples of runoff?

Runoff is defined as excess water draining away from land or buildings. The overflow of water that drains off of your driveway is an example of runoff.

How do you control surface runoff?


  1. Mulch Farming.
  2. Soil Conditioners.
  3. Cover Crops.
  4. Alley Cropping.
  5. No-tillage Farming.
  6. Ploughing.
  7. Strip Cropping.
  8. Contour Farming.

What is subsurface runoff?

Subsurface runoff is the water that infiltrates in the vadose zone (unsaturated zone), from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, and moves laterally towards the streams. Vadose zone extends from the top of the ground surface to the water table. It is one of the major components in the water cycle.

What are the elements of runoff?


  • Direct rainfall over the stream:-
  • Surface runoff or overland flow: –
  • Subsurface flow or interflow:–
  • Base flow, groundwater flow or Dry weather flow:-

What are 3 types of runoff?

There are three major types of runoff depending on the source: surface flow, interflow, and base flow. These were discussed in Module 101 and are expanded upon here. Surface flow is water that has remained on the surface and moves as overland or channel flow.

What is a runoff ratio?

Runoff ratio is the runoff for each watershed divided by the precipitation for that watershed. It is the proportion of rainfall that does not infiltrate and is not taken up by evapotranspiration, and thus ends up as runoff. These areas will have high runoff ratios.

How does rainfall become runoff?

Rain leaches alkaline elements including calcium, magnesium and potassium from the soil into runoff water, leaving acidic elements like hydrogen, aluminum and manganese to replace the bases. This means that areas with high annual rainfall amounts, such as parts of New England, generally have more acidic soil than the arid deserts of Arizona.

What are facts about runoff?

Runoff, run-off or RUNOFF may refer to: RUNOFF, the first computer text-formatting program Runoff or run-off, another name for bleed, printing that lies beyond the edges to which a printed sheet is trimmed Runoff or run-off, a stock market term Runoff curve number, an empirical parameter used in hydrology

What can I do with rainwater runoff?

10 Ways To Manage Runoff Water Add plants. Incorporate plantings, especially in areas where runoff collects. Protect trees. Like other plant roots, tree roots help absorb and filter runoff. Break up slabs. Go permeable. Catch runoff. Dig a trench. Plant a rain garden. Cover soil. Swap lawn. Drive on the grass.

What is the unit of rain fall runoff?

Unit hydrograph is a direct runoff hydrograph resulting from one unit (one inch or one cm) of constant intensity uniform rainfall occurring over the entire watershed. The concept of unit hydrograph is based on linear systems theory and follow the principles of superposition and proportionality.