## What is Begg and Egger test?

The test of Begg assesses if there is a significant correlation between the ranks of the effect estimates and the ranks of their variances. The test of Egger uses linear regression to assess the relation between the standardized effect estimates and the standard error (SE).

**What is the most appropriate test to check publication bias?**

Egger’s test is commonly used to assess potential publication bias in a meta-analysis via funnel plot asymmetry (Egger’s test is a linear regression of the intervention effect estimates on their standard errors weighted by their inverse variance).

### How do you test for publication bias?

The main graphical method for identifying publication bias is the use of funnel plots. A funnel plot is a plot of effect size against sample size or some other indicator of the precision of the estimate.

**How many studies are needed for a funnel plot?**

As a rule of thumb, tests for funnel plot asymmetry should be used only when there are at least 10 studies included in the meta-analysis, because when there are fewer studies the power of the tests is too low to distinguish chance from real asymmetry.

## What is funnel plot asymmetry?

A test for funnel plot asymmetry (sometimes referred to as a test for small study effects) examines whether the association between estimated intervention effects and a measure of study size is greater than might be expected to occur by chance.

**What is small study effect?**

“Small-study effects” is a generic term for the phenomenon that smaller studies sometimes show different, often larger, treatment effects than large ones. This notion was coined by Sterne et al. [55]. One possible, probably the most well-known, reason is publication bias.

### What is meta regression analysis?

Meta-regression is defined to be a meta-analysis that uses regression analysis to combine, compare, and synthesize research findings from multiple studies while adjusting for the effects of available covariates on a response variable.

**What data is needed for funnel plot?**

In a funnel plot, the weight of each study, the sample size, or the inverse of the variance is plotted against the size of its treatment effect in a meta-analysis. This plot should be shaped like an inverted funnel if there is no publication bias; asymmetric funnel plots may suggest publication bias.

## What does a good funnel plot look like?

The plot should ideally resemble a pyramid or inverted funnel, with scatter due to sampling variation. The shape is expected because the studies have a wide range of standard errors. If the standard errors were the same size, the studies would all fall on a horizontal line.

**What is small study?**

### What is the test of Begg and Egger?

The test of Begg assesses if there is a significant correlation between the ranks of the effect estimates and the ranks of their variances. The test of Egger uses linear regression to assess the relation between the standardized effect estimates and the standard error (SE).

**What is the name of Begg’s rank correlation test?**

BT is also named as rank correlation test which was firstly introduced by Begg et al. This method examines the relationship between the standardized treatment effect and the variance of the treatment effect using Kendall‟s tau. 2.2.3. Other Methods

## Can a Begg method be used to detect bias?

Unless you have many studies in your meta-analysis, the Begg method has very low power to detect biases (Sterne et al., 2000). Other statistical methods can be used to investigate the effects of study characteristics other than sample size upon effects (Sterne et al., 2002).

**When to use the Egger test instead of Harbord?**

The original Egger test should be used instead of the Harbord method if there is a large imbalance between the sizes of treatment and control groups – the same is true for the Peto odds ratio, to which this test is mathematically related.