Can I abbreviate in APA?
When abbreviating a term, use the full term the first time you use it, followed immediately by the abbreviation in parentheses. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), abbreviations are best used only when they allow for clear communication with the audience.
Can you use abbreviations in a dissertation?
There are many rules about using abbreviations in a dissertation. When you use acronymsformed using the first letter of each word in a phraseyou should write the first occurrence of phrase in full, and place the abbreviation in parentheses immediately after it.
How do you abbreviate United States in APA?
In APA style, “United States” should always be spelled out when it is used as a noun or location. Example: In the United States, 67% reported this experience. United States can be abbreviated as “U.S.” when it is used as an adjective.
What is Harvard referencing style format?
Harvard (Author-Date) style The Harvard referencing style is another popular style using the author-date system for in-text citations. In-text citation: It consists mainly of the authors’ last name and the year of publication (and page numbers if it is directly quoted) in round brackets placed within the text.
How do you use Harvard referencing?
A Harvard reference list must:Be on a separate sheet at the end of the document.Be organised alphabetically by author, unless there is no author then it is ordered by the source title, excluding articles such as a, an or the. Be double spaced: there should be a full, blank line of space between each line of text.
Where does the edition go in Harvard referencing?
Book (printed, with authors and editors)Author/editor.Year of publication (in round brackets).Title (in italics).Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition).Place of publication: publisher.Series and volume number (where relevant).
What is an in text reference example?
Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14).
How do you cross reference in an essay?
Now, a decent cross-reference consists of several elements: Name of the source being referenced—This can either be the title or a general subject reference. If it is a chapter title or a heading, put it in quotation marks; if it is the name of a book, magazine, report, or reference work, put it in italics or underline.