## What is the Hodgkin Huxley model used for?

The Hodgkin–Huxley model, or conductance-based model, is a mathematical model that describes how action potentials in neurons are initiated and propagated. It is a set of nonlinear differential equations that approximates the electrical characteristics of excitable cells such as neurons and cardiac myocytes.

**What model organism did Hodgkin and Huxley use?**

In their Nobel Prize-winning work uncovering ionic mechanism of action potentials, Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley performed experiments on the squid giant axon, using the longfin inshore squid as the model organism.

**What method did Hodgkin and Huxley invent in order to determine the ionic currents that mediated the action potential?**

voltage-clamp technique

The sodium current that initiates the nerve action potential was discovered by Hodgkin and Huxley using the voltage-clamp technique in their landmark series of papers in 1952.

### Which part of the squid was beneficial for the Hodgkin Huxley study?

squid giant axon

His discovery of the squid giant axon in the 1930s was pivotal since it provided an electrically excitable membrane of sufficient area for Hodgkin and Huxley’s experiments.

**What stops the Hodgkin cycle?**

The cycle is broken when the membrane potential reaches to the sodium equilibrium potential and potassium channels open to re-polarize the membrane potential.

**Why does the K+ conductance turn on slower and last longer than the Na+ conductance?**

K+ conductance turns on slower and lasts longer than the Na+ conductance because the membrane is able to depolarize by opening up K+ ion channels. When the K+ equilibrium potential is raised, depolarization occurs. The increase results in achieving the threshold potential and a generation of action potential.

## Which statement about protein kinases in the brain is most accurate?

Which statement about protein kinases in the brain is most accurate? They amplify second messenger signals. open ion pores in the G-protein structure. Which of the following provides an example of a second messenger producing another second messenger?

**What are two forces moving ions across the plasma membrane?**

The driving force of the chemical concentration gradient tends to move ions down this gradient (chemical potential). On the other hand the electrostatic force due to the charge separation across the membrane tends to move ions in a direction determined by its particular charge.

**Why do squids have large axons?**

A squid moves by jet propulsion. The animal contracts the muscles of its outer mantle to expel a jet of water from the mantle cavity through a moveable siphon. The giant axons serve to ensure a rapid and simultaneous contraction of all the mantle muscles—a necessary condition for fast, effective locomotion.

### Why did Hodgkin and Huxley use a squid?

Hodgkin and Huxley used the large axons of the squid to measure voltage changes during an action potential. And they knew that action potentials are stimulated by the movement of sodium ions across the neuronal membrane through proteins called ion channels.

**Which is the best description of the Hodgkin Huxley model?**

e The Hodgkin–Huxley model, or conductance-based model, is a mathematical model that describes how action potentials in neurons are initiated and propagated. It is a set of nonlinear differential equations that approximates the electrical characteristics of excitable cells such as neurons and cardiac myocytes.

**Is the Hodgkin Huxley model based on transition state theory?**

The Hodgkin–Huxley model has been modified to incorporate transition state theory and produce thermodynamic Hodgkin–Huxley models. Models often incorporate highly complex geometries of dendrites and axons, often based on microscopy data. Stochastic models of ion-channel behavior, leading to stochastic hybrid systems.

## How did Hodgkin and Huxley contribute to computational neuroscience?

Hodgkin and Huxley developed a series of equations that could accurately predict and depict action potentials. Their work is a cornerstone for computational modeling as computer modelling can now be used to mimic the biological properties of a neuron that we are unable to directly observe.

**How are Hodgkin Huxley equations derived under voltage clamp?**

For a derivation of the Hodgkin–Huxley equations under voltage-clamp, see. Briefly, when the membrane potential is held at a constant value (i.e., voltage-clamp), for each value of the membrane potential the nonlinear gating equations reduce to equations of the form: