What is histidine rich protein?

Histidine-rich protein II (HRPII) is a protein produced by P. falciparum but not by other malaria parasite species. It accumulates in the bloodstream [10] and is the basis of diagnostic and prognostic tests for falciparum malaria.

Can malaria be detected in urine?

Urine has been widely evaluated as an alternative specimen for malaria diagnosis. Few studies have evaluated the use of saliva. In this study, saliva, with or without blood contamination, was found to be of higher sensitivity compared to urine as an alternative sample to diagnose malaria.

What is the urine Colour of a malaria patient?

Introduction: early recognition of warning signs in malarial patients allows timely identification of the patient at risk of severe malaria and provides opportune treatment. Jaundice and dark urine are frequent signs that can alert to the occurrence of severe malaria.

Is urine examination of any help in ruling out Plasmodium falciparum infection?

P. falciparum infection is detectable by PCR on human urine and saliva samples. Subject to further refinement of extraction technique and amplicon yields, large-scale malaria parasite screening and epidemiological surveys could be possible without the need to collect blood and use of needles or sharps.

Is histidine an amino acid?

Histidine is an amino acid. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein in our bodies.

What is HRP2 antigen?

The Plasmodium falciparum antigen histidine rich protein 2 (HRP2) is a preferred target for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) because of its abundant production by the parasite and thermal stability. As a result, a majority of RDTs procured globally target this antigen.

How accurate is urine malaria Test?

The overall sensitivity, specificity and DOR of rapid diagnostic test for malaria in urine was 59.8% (95% CI 40.0% to 76.9%), 96.9% (95% CI 91.0% to 99.0%) and 30.8 (95% CI:23.5 to 40.4).

Can malaria cause protein in urine?

Clinical manifestations of kidney involvement in malaria include proteinuria, microalbuminuria and urinary casts, reported in 20 to 50% of cases. Nephrotic syndrome has also been described in the infection by P.

What abnormal color can urine have and why?

Urine that’s abnormally colored may have tints of red, orange, blue, green, or brown. Abnormal urine color can be caused by a variety of issues. For example, it can result from taking certain medications, eating certain foods, having certain medical conditions, or being dehydrated.

Can malaria cause high bilirubin in urine?

Bilirubin and urobilinogen concentrations in urine were increased in samples from Nigerian patients with malaria, compared to uninfected patients ( ) [11]. Other publications described proteinuria [7, 14, 15], hematuria [14], and myoglobinuria in malaria patients [10].

Is histidine a protein?

Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is one of the major plasma proteins; it has been isolated from the plasma of various mammals and chicken.