## What is Expectimax algorithm?

The Expectimax search algorithm is a game theory algorithm used to maximize the expected utility. It is a variation of the Minimax algorithm. While Minimax assumes that the adversary(the minimizer) plays optimally, the Expectimax doesn’t.

### Is Expectimax better than minimax?

As evident from the results, Expectimax is quite dominant over minimax (similar results can be seen without alpha-beta pruning in minimax) in terms of results produced. Both use the same evaluation function and do not proceed any further than 3 moves.

What kind of games should be solved using Expectimax?

It is widely used in two-player turn-based games such as Tic-Tac-Toe, Backgammon, Mancala, Chess, etc. In Minimax the two players are called maximizer and minimizer. The maximizer tries to get the highest score possible while the minimizer tries to do the opposite and get the lowest score possible.

What is the purpose of Expectiminimax?

The expectiminimax algorithm is a variation of the minimax algorithm, for use in artificial intelligence systems that play two-player zero-sum games, such as backgammon, in which the outcome depends on a combination of the player’s skill and chance elements such as dice rolls.

## What is Negamax algorithm?

Negamax search is a variant form of minimax search that relies on the zero-sum property of a two-player game. This algorithm relies on the fact that. to simplify the implementation of the minimax algorithm. More precisely, the value of a position to player A in such a game is the negation of the value to player B.

### Which of these searches is used by the Minimax algorithm?

Mini-Max algorithm uses recursion to search through the game-tree. Min-Max algorithm is mostly used for game playing in AI. Such as Chess, Checkers, tic-tac-toe, go, and various tow-players game.

Which of these searches is used by the minimax algorithm?

What is the complexity of minimax algorithm?

The time complexity of minimax is O(b^m) and the space complexity is O(bm), where b is the number of legal moves at each point and m is the maximum depth of the tree.

## Which search method is used in minimax algorithm?

### How do you use minimax algorithm?

3. Minimax Algorithm

1. Construct the complete game tree.
2. Evaluate scores for leaves using the evaluation function.
3. Back-up scores from leaves to root, considering the player type: For max player, select the child with the maximum score.
4. At the root node, choose the node with max value and perform the corresponding move.

How is the expectimax algorithm used in Pacman?

In Pacman, if we have random ghosts, we can model Pacman as the maximizer and ghosts as chance nodes. The utility values will be the values of the terminal states (win, lose or draw) or the evaluation function value for the set of possible states at a given depth.

When to use expectimax as a heuristic value?

// taken as heuristic value. Space complexity: O (b*m), where b is branching factor and m is the maximum depth of the tree. Applications: Expectimax can be used in environments where the actions of one of the agents are random. Following are a few examples,

## How is the expectimax algorithm used in game theory?

The Chance nodes take the average of all available utilities giving us the ‘expected utility’. Thus the expected utilities for left and right sub-trees are (10+10)/2=10 and (100+9)/2=54.5. The maximizer node chooses the right sub-tree to maximize the expected utilities. Expectimax algorithm helps take advantage of non-optimal opponents.

### Which is better minimax or expectimax for minimax?

For minimax, if we have two states S1 and S2, if S1 is better than S2, the magnitudes of the evalaution function values f (S1) and f (S2) don’t matter as along as f (S1) > f (S2) . For expectimax, magnitudes of the evaluation function values matter. Algorithm: Expectimax can be implemented using recursive algorithm as follows,