What is ADCC in cancer?

Consisting in the targeting of cancer cells for destruction by antibodies to be then killed by effector immune cells, antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) is thus the basis of several monoclonal antibody therapies which have been proven powerful and highly promising for cancer treatment.

What is ADCC in immunology?

A type of immune reaction in which a target cell or microbe is coated with antibodies and killed by certain types of white blood cells. The white blood cells bind to the antibodies and release substances that kill the target cells or microbes.

Which type of immune cell is called as ADCC?

Antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity ADCC is an adaptive immune response largely mediated by NK cells through the CD16 (FCγRIII) receptor that binds the Fc portion of IgG antibodies triggering the lysis of targeted cells.

What triggers ADCC?

ADCC is triggered when FcR-bearing effector cells recognize a target cell that has been opsonized by antibodies.

What is the main function of natural killer cells?

Natural killer (NK) cells are effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system that control several types of tumors and microbial infections by limiting their spread and subsequent tissue damage.

What triggers natural killer cells?

NK cells are activated in response to interferons or macrophage-derived cytokines. They serve to contain viral infections while the adaptive immune response is generating antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells that can clear the infection.

How is the ADCC capacity of IgG3 affected?

While all IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 allotypes behaved similarly within subclass, large allotype-specific variation was found for IgG3. ADCC capacity was affected by residues 291, 292, and 296 in the CH2 domain through altered affinity or avidity for FcγRIIIa.

How does antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity ( ADCC ) work?

The antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.

What is the role of FcγR in ADCC?

FcγR Binding and ADCC Activity of Human IgG Allotypes Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an Fc-dependent effector function of IgG important for anti-viral immunity and anti-tumor therapies. NK-cell mediated ADCC is mainly triggered by IgG-subclasses IgG1 and IgG3 through the IgG-Fc-receptor (FcγR) IIIa.

How are NK cells involved in ADCC activity?

NK cells mediate ADCC through binding of antibody opsonized target cells by membrane expressed FcγRIIIa and induce cytotoxicity by releasing granzymes and perforins stored in intracellular granules ( 7, 8 ). This is an important effector mechanism that contributes to the killing of tumor cells upon immunotherapy ( 9, 10 ).