What causes anti-Kell antibodies?

Over half of the cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn owing the anti-Kell antibodies are caused by multiple blood transfusions, with the remainder due to a previous pregnancy with a Kell1 positive baby.

How do you get anti-Kell antibodies?

Anti-Kell is an important cause of HDN. It tends to occur in mothers who have had several blood transfusions in the past, but it may also occur in mothers who have been sensitized to the Kell antigen during previous pregnancies.

What is alloimmunization in pregnancy?

Maternal alloimmunization is the presence of non-AB antibodies in the-pregnant woman, in some cases putting her fetus at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.

How is alloimmunization diagnosed?

Common tests for diagnosing Alloimmunization include: A blood test to detect antibodies that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells (known as a direct Coombs test) Testing of either or both the father of the baby or the fetus by amniocentesis to determine the fetus’ blood type.

Where does Kell antibody come from?

Kell antibodies are usually made by the mom’s body after the mom has undergone a prior blood transfusion in which new blood contains the Kell antigen that is not the mother’s own.

When an Rh negative mother has been sensitized and is pregnant with an Rh positive fetus what happens to the fetus?

If your blood is Rh-negative and you have been sensitized to Rh-positive blood, you now have antibodies to Rh-positive blood. The antibodies kill Rh-positive red blood cells. If you become pregnant with an Rh-positive baby (fetus), the antibodies can destroy your fetus’s red blood cells. This can cause anemia.

Can HDN be prevented?

HDN can be prevented. Almost all women will have a blood test to learn their blood type early in pregnancy. If you’re Rh negative and have not been sensitized, you’ll get a medicine called Rh immunoglobulin (RhoGAM). This medicine can stop your antibodies from reacting to your baby’s Rh positive cells.

Can a Kell antibody cause a transfusion reaction?

Antibodies that target Kell antigens can cause transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). In the case of HDN, ABO and Rh incompatibility are more common causes. However, disease caused by maternal anti-ABO tends to be mild, and disease caused by maternal anti-Rh can largely be prevented.

What kind of antibodies are in the Kell blood group?

Anti-Kell antibodies are usually of the antibody class IgG (IgM is far less common). The antibodies that have been implicated in causing transfusion reactions, which can occasionally be severe in nature include, anti-K, anti-k, anti-Kpa, and anti-Jsb (2).

Which is the most common frequency of Kell antigens?

Frequency of Kell antigens ~100%: k, Kpb, Ku, Jsb, K11, K12, K13, K14, K18, K19, Km, K22, K26, K27 K antigen: 2%in Blacks, 9%in Caucasians, up to 25%in Arabs ~2%: Kpa, U1a ~0.01%: Jsa (0.01% in Caucasians, 20% in Blacks), Kpc, K23 Others: K17 (~0.3%), K24 (rare), VLAN (rare), K16 (unknown) (2) Frequency of Kell phenotypes

Is the Kell blood group polymorphic or polymorphic?

The Kell blood group system is complex. The Kell locus is highly polymorphic and gives rise to many Kell antigens. There are, however, two major codominant allelic genes that produce two important antigens: K and k (previously known as Kell and Cellano, respectively), which differ by a single amino acid.