Is drug induced ototoxicity reversible?

Ototoxicity is the property of being toxic to the ear (oto-), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibular system, for example, as a side effect of a drug. The effects of ototoxicity can be reversible and temporary, or irreversible and permanent.

Can aminoglycosides cause ototoxicity?

It has long been known that the major irreversible toxicity of aminoglycosides is ototoxicity. Among them, streptomycin and gentamicin are primarily vestibulotoxic, whereas amikacin, neomycin, dihydrosterptomycin, and kanamicin are primarily cochleotoxic.

How can you prevent aminoglycoside ototoxicity?

Use of antioxidants can reduce ROS levels and effectively prevent aminoglycosides-induced ototoxicity. These include coenzyme Q10 (Fetoni et al., 2012), alpha-tocopherol (Fetoni et al., 2003), D-methionine (Campbell et al., 2016). ROS can be produced in a variety of ways, and mitochondria are the main source of ROS.

Does ototoxicity go away?

Ototoxicity can be temporary or permanent. The effect of certain drugs is often temporary, while other drugs typically produce permanent changes to the ear.

What organs can be affected by aminoglycosides?

The major side effects of aminoglycosides are kidney injury, hearing impairment and vestibular toxicity.

How do you stop ototoxicity?

Prevention. Limit using drugs to those that are absolutely needed and follow the instructions carefully for those medications that are prescribed for you. If possible, avoid taking multiple types of ototoxic drugs (aspirin, quinine, loop diuretics, and aminoglycosides).

How do I get rid of ototoxicity?

Ototoxicity cure There is currently no cure for permanent ototoxicity; however, hearing aids can improve the effects of hearing loss and help people with ototoxicity live normal lives.

What is a major side effect of aminoglycosides?

What are the major toxic effects of aminoglycosides?

Adverse Effects

  • The main noted adverse effects of aminoglycosides are ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neuromuscular blockade.
  • Aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity has been reported to occur in 2 to 45% of adults.
  • Nephrotoxicity due to aminoglycosides may appear in up to 10 to 25% of patients.

Are there any studies on aminoglycoside ototoxicity?

The author participated in two prospective studies of patients receiving aminoglycoside antibiotics. In the first study, 54 patients received amikacin, and 54 received gentamicin. In the second study, 61 patients received gentamicin, 50 received netilmicin, and 52 received tobramycin. The studies we … Aminoglycoside ototoxicity

How are anti-free radical agents used to treat ototoxicity?

Anti-free radical agents, such as salicylate, have been shown to attenuate the ototoxic effects of aminoglycosides. In this paper, incidence, predisposition, mechanism, and prevention of aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity is discussed in the light of literature data.

How is the inner ear affected by aminoglycosides?

Aminoglycosides appear to generate free radicals within the inner ear, with subsequent permanent damage to sensory cells and neurons, resulting in permanent hearing loss. Two mutations in the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene have been previously reported to predispose carriers to aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity.

How are aminoglycosides used to treat Meniere’s disease?

As aminoglycosides are indispensable agents both in the treatment of infections and Meniere’s disease, a great effort has been made to develop strategies to prevent aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Anti-free radical agents, such as salicylate, have been shown to attenuate the ototoxic effects of aminoglycosides.